FAQ

Q?

WHAT IS ARTHRITIS?

A.

Arthritis refers to inflammation of the joints. The inflammation can affect the joint lining (synovium), bones, cartilage, or supporting tissues.

Q?

WHAT ARE ARTHRITIS SYMPTOMS?

A.

The most common symptoms of arthritis include joint pain, stiffness, swelling, joint tenderness and limited movement of the joint. The skin over the joint is sometimes red.

Q?

WHAT IS THE ALARMING SYMPTOMS TO SEEK MY DOCTOR?

A.

Some signs and symptoms of arthritis require urgent medical care. If you have one or more swollen joints and any of the following, you should seek medical care as soon as possible.

- Fever.
- Weight loss.
- Night sweeting.
- Sudden weakness of muscles.
- Burning pain, numbness, or a pins-and-needles sensation.

Q?

WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA)?

A.

It is the most common musculoskeletal problem in people over age of 50 years.

-It is characterized by focal degeneration of joint cartilage and new bone formation at the base of the cartilage lesion (subchondral bone) and at the joint margins (osteophytes).

-Alarming symptoms to seek medical advice
1- Pain& stiffness especially when you climb stairs, stand up from a sitting position, or bending knees during prayer time.
2-Swelling or Tenderness: this can be due to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) or extra fluids in the knee.
3-Cracking or Popping Sounds: you may feel a grinding sensation in your knees as you move. You might even hear cracking or popping sounds coming from your knees.
4-Restricted Range of Motion.
5-Deformities of the Knee: flexion deformity of knees, Genu varus or valgus deformity.

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Q?

WHAT ARE X-RAY FINDINGS IN CASE OF KNEE OA?

A.

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- Joint space narrowing

- Subchondral sclerosis.

- Subchondral bone cysts.

-Osteophytes.

Q?

WHAT IS THE TREATMENT OF KNEES OA?

A.

1- Assurance and Instructions for joint protection:

  • Don’t lie or sit too long in one position.
  • Don’t use low chairs.
  • Don’t stand in the same position or walk for long periods.
  • Don’t over exercise the affected joint.
  • Don’t use faulty posture that places stress on the affected joint.
  • Don’t load the joint when it is very painful.
  • Don’t gain weight.

2- Medical Treatment:

  • Short courses of NSAIDS to relieve pain and/or inflammation.
  • Disease modifying agents: New agents that modify the course of cartilage destruction and aid support of cartilage’s proteoglycans e.g.
  • Glucosamine compounds.
  • Chondroitin sulphate compounds.

3- Physiotherapy:

This will lead to:

  • Decrease pain, stiffness and muscle spasm.
  • Strengthening the peri-articular muscles to provide improved joint support
  • Improve the blood supply and metabolism around the affected joint

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4- Intra-articular injection of visco-supplementation as hyalouronic acid preparations:

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Q?

WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?

A.

Osteoporosis is a condition of decreased bone mass. This leads to fragile bones which are at an increased risk for fractures.

Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.

Q?

WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF OSTEOPOROSIS?

A.

There typically are no symptoms in the early stages of bone loss so osteoporosis is called the "silent disease". But once bones have been weakened by osteoporosis, you may have signs and symptoms that include:

  • Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra.
  • Loss of height over time
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected.

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Q?

WHEN TO SEE A DOCTOR?

A.

You may want to talk to your doctor about osteoporosis if you went through early menopause, took corticosteroids for several months at a time, or either of your parents had hip fractures.

Q?

WHAT ARE RISK FACTORS FOR OSTEOPOROSIS?

A.

Risk factors you cannot change include:

Gender:Women get osteoporosis more often than men.

Age:The older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis.

Body size:Small, thin women are at greater risk.

Ethnicity:White and Asian women are at highest risk. Black and Hispanic women have a lower risk.

Family history: Osteoporosis tends to run in families.

Other risk factors are:

Sex hormones:Low estrogen levels due to missing menstrual periods or to menopause can cause osteoporosis in women. Low testosterone levels can bring on osteoporosis in men.

Anorexia nervosa:This eating disorder can lead to osteoporosis.

Calcium and vitamin D intake:A diet low in calcium and vitamin D makes you more prone to bone loss.

Medication use:Some medicines increase the risk of osteoporosis as corticosteroids.

Activity level:Lack of exercise or long-term bed rest can cause weak bones.

Smoking:Cigarettes are bad for bones, and the heart, and lungs, too.

Drinking alcohol:Too much alcohol can cause bone loss and broken bones.

Q?

CAN OSTEOPOROSIS BE PREVENTED?

A.

There are many steps you can take to help keep your bones healthy. To help keep your bones strong and slow down bone loss, you can:

Nutrition:

A healthy diet with enough calcium and vitamin D helps make your bones strong. Many people get less than half the calcium they need. Good sources of calcium are:

Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese.

Foods with added calcium such as orange juice, cereals, and breads.

Vitamin D is also needed for strong bones. Some people may need to take vitamin D pills. The chart on this page shows the amount of calcium and vitamin D you should get each day.

Recommended Calcium and Vitamin D Intakes

Life-stage group Calcium mg/day Vitamin D (IU/day)
Infants 0 to 6 months 200 400
Infants 6 to 12 months 260 400
1 to 3 years old 700 600
4 to 8 years old 1,000 600
9 to 13 years old 1,300 600
14 to 18 years old 1,300 600
19 to 30 years old 1,000 600
31 to 50 years old 1,000 600
51- to 70-year-old males 1,000 600
51- to 70-year-old females 1,200 600
>70 years old 1,200 800
14 to 18 years old, pregnant/lactating 1,300 600
19 to 50 years old, pregnant/lactating 1,000 600

Definitions: mg = milligrams; IU = International Units
Source: Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2010.

Exercise:

Exercise helps your bones grow stronger. To increase bone strength, you can:

Walk, hike, jog, climb stairs, play tennis and dance.

Healthy Lifestyle:

Smoking is bad for bones as well as the heart and lungs. Also, people who drink a lot of alcohol are more prone to bone loss and broken bones due to poor diet and risk of falling.

Q?

HOW IS OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSED?

A.

A bone mineral density test is the best way to check your bone health. This test can:

Diagnose osteoporosis and tell you whether you are likely to break a bone.

Check bone strength.

See if treatments are making the bones stronger.

Q?

HOW IS OSTEOPOROSIS TREATED?

A.

Treatment for osteoporosis includes:

A balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.

An exercise plan.

A healthy lifestyle.

Medications, if needed.